|KIM IL SUNG
1. APRIL 1912--DECEMBER 1931
Publisher: Foreign Languages Publishing House, Pyongyang, DPRK
Year of publication: Juche 90(2001)
From: NDFSK Mission in Pyongyang
Kim Il Sung was born in Mangyongdae, Pyongyang City, on April 15, Juche 1 (1912).
All the members of Kim Il Sung's family were revolutionaries who fought valorously for the sovereignty and independence of the country, and for the freedom and happiness of the people.
Kim Ung U, his great-grandfather, was a patriot who stood in the van of the fight to sink the General Sherman, an armed marauding US merchant vessel, in 1866.
Kim Po Hyon, his grandfather, and Ri Po Ik, his grandmother, backed all their sons and grandsons, whom they had offered to the revolutionary struggle, and fought, remaining faithful to their national principles and unyielding to the cruel repression and persecution of the Japanese imperialists.
Kim Hyong Jik (July 10, 1894--June 5, 1926), his father, was an outstanding leader of the anti-Japanese national liberation movement in Korea who devoted his whole life to the liberation of the country and to the freedom and emancipation of the people.
He held the idea of Jiwon (Aim High-Tr.) as his motto and launched out on the path of revolution in his early days. On March 23, 1917 he formed the Korean National Association, an anti-Japanese underground revolutionary organization, which was the largest of its kind in scale and had the firmest anti-imperialist independent stand, as well as having a strong mass foundation among all the organizations formed by Korean patriots at home and abroad in those days and led it.
Kim Hyong Jik played the role of a pioneer in switching the anti-Japanese national liberation movement of the Korean people from a nationalist movement to a communist movement, to meet the requirements of the changing situation in the wake of the March First Popular Uprising in 1919.
Kang Pan Sok (April 21, 1892-July 31, 1932), his mother, was a prominent leader of the Korean communist women's movement who devoted her whole life to the struggle for the victory of the Korean revolution and for the social emancipation of women.
Kim Hyong Gwon, his uncle, and Kim Chol Ju, his younger brother, were also ardent communist revolutionary fighters who fought staunchly in the anti-Japanese revolutionary struggle in their early days. Moreover, Kang Ton Uk, his maternal grandfather, and Kang Jin Sok, his maternal uncle, were also ardent patriots and indefatigable anti-Japanese fighters.
Kim Il Sung's family members regarded love of their country, nation and people as the family tradition. They considered it to be their family philosophy that one could not live without humanity even though one could live without money.
Working as tenant farmers from generation to generation, his family eked out a scant living, but they had an ardent sense of patriotism, a strong appreciation of justice and a lofty human spirit. Therefore, they enjoyed respect from other people as "a poor but honest family with absolute faithfulness to a just cause".
His father named him Song Ju, hoping that he would become the pillar of the country.
From his childhood Kim Il Sung had striking features and was endowed with unusual intelligence and a spirit of inquiry, great magnanimity, strong will, a lively nature, clear judgment and exceptional memory.
He was growing up when Korea was going through the bitterest period of its national suffering, with its people having been reduced to colonial slaves, deprived of their country at the hands of the Japanese imperialists.
Kim Il Sung acquired the traits and qualities of a great revolutionary thanks to the revolutionary influence of his parents, his tireless study and inquiry, and his witnessing and experience of contradictory social phenomena, as well as in the practical struggle against the Japanese imperialists.
Kim Il Sung spent his childhood in Mangyongdae and Ponghwa-ri.
In those days he heard from his parents about his country, with its beautiful mountains and limpid rivers, and the resourceful and brave Korean nation with a long history of 5,000 years and a brilliant culture, about the Korean people and the renowned patriotic generals who had fought dauntlessly against the feudal ruling circles and foreign invaders, as well as about the history of Korea's ruin and about the brutal colonial rule of the Japanese imperialists and their chauvinistic arrogance, and the harsh exploitation inflicted by the landowners and capitalists. In the course of this, he cultivated love for his country and nation.
In the autumn of 1917 he witnessed the dignified attitude of his father who awed the Japanese imperialists even while he was arrested by them in Ponghwa-ri, Kangdong County, on a charge of being involved with the Korean National Association; and he saw the fortitude of his mother, who fearlessly resisted the Japanese policemen who brutally raided and searched their house. Then, in the summer of the next year, when he had gone to Pyongyang prison to meet his father, he saw the strong demeanor of his father, who did not abandon his revolutionary mettle, firmly enduring the atrocious torture of the Japanese imperialist aggressors. This hardened his hatred against the predatory Japanese imperialists as well as his indomitable revolutionary spirit.
The nationwide March First Popular Uprising, which broke out in 1919, was an important turning point which infused the indomitable will of the Korean people and the image of their resourcefulness deep in the young heart of Kim Il Sung.
Young as he was, he went with the demonstrators from Mangyongdae to the Potong Gate. Seeing the brutalities of the Japanese imperialists, who killed empty-handed demonstrators in cold blood with bayonets, as well as the dignified spirit of the masses, who encountered them without yielding to them in the least, he keenly felt that the Japanese imperialist aggressors were the sworn enemy of the Korean people and that the strength of the masses was inexhaustible.
After his father was released from prison, Kim Il Sung spent his boyhood moving frequently to various areas of Korea and China with his parents, who were engaged in revolutionary activities.
In the autumn of 1919 he left Mangyongdae, his native village, for Junggang, with his parents. After staying there for some time, he crossed the Amnok River to Linjiang, China. After studying Chinese for over half a year there, he entered Linjiang Primary School in the spring of 1920. In the summer of the next year he moved to Badaogou, Changhay County, and was enrolled in a four-year Chinese primary school.
Kim Il Sung gained a good command of Chinese because he had learned it at an early age and studied at a Chinese school, thanks to his father's farsightedness. This made a great contribution to his waging a joint anti-Japanese struggle with the Chinese people later on.
Having graduated from Badaogou Primary School with honors at the beginning of 1923, Kim Il Sung returned to his homeland upholding the lofty idea of his father that, in order to make revolution, he should know the actual situation in his own country well.
He left Badaogou on March 16, and crossed Mt. Oga via Woltan. Then he walked to Kaechon, passing through Hwapyong, Huksu, Kanggye, Songgan, Jonchon, Koin, Chongun, Huichon, Hyangsan and Kujang. He took a train at Kaechon and arrived in Mangyongdae, his native place, on March 29. The journey of 250 miles he made from Badaogou to Mangyongdae was a "250-mile journey of learning" which enabled him to learn about his homeland and his fellow countrymen.
After returning to his homeland, Kim Il Sung stayed in his mother's maiden home in Chilgol and studied hard in the fifth year of Changdok School (a six-year private school). In those days he bitterly experienced the reality of his homeland, ruthlessly trampled upon by the Japanese imperialist aggressors. In the course of this, he came to warmly appreciate the unbreakable will of the Korean people for independence, and was convinced that it was quite possible to win back the country through the efforts of the Koreans themselves if they were organized and mobilized well. In particular, witnessing the atrocities of the Japanese imperialists, who were exercising a brutal military occupation rule over Korea behind the mask of a crafty "civil government", he clearly realized that they were the most heinous stiflers of the Korean people as well as vicious exploiters and plunderers. He was convinced even more firmly that the Korean nation would be able to drive out the Japanese imperialists and win the independence of their country only through struggle.
In January 1925 Kim Il Sung heard the news that his father had been arrested again by the Japanese imperialists, and resolutely left Mangyongdae to start on his "250-mile journey for national liberation", arriving at Popyong in 13 days.
Crossing the Amnok River, he firmly resolved not to return until Korea' had won its independence.
Recalling those days, Kim Il Sung said:
"I crossed the Amnok River when I was 13, firmly determined not to return before Korea became independent. Young as I was, I could not repress my sorrow as I sang the Song of the Amnok River written by someone, and wondered when I would be able to tread this land again, when I would return to this land where I had grown up and where there were our forefathers' graves."
Having crossed the Amnok River, Kim Il Sung went to Fusong via Badaogou and Linjiang. His father, who had escaped while being escorted by Japanese policemen, was staying there.
At the beginning of April 1925 he was enrolled in Fusong Senior Primary School No. 1, and graduated with top honors early in spring the next year.
In his primary school days he was absorbed in his study and rendered active help to his father in his revolutionary activities. At the same time, he avidly read revolutionary books, such as The Biography of Lenin, The Fundamentals of Socialism and The Revolutionary History of Russia and Lenin, as well as the biographies of the renowned patriotic generals of Korea and of famous people in other parts of the world. In the course of this he developed a critical eye for social phenomena and revolutionary struggle as well as a faculty for independent thinking and a spirit of serious inquiry.
The lofty aim and unusually great ambition, extensive knowledge and high level of political awareness, great magnanimity and generosity possessed by Kim Il Sung caused young students and other people to respect and follow him.
In his teens Kim Il Sung had already grown up into a revolutionary who personified the firm spirit of anti-imperialist independence and the steadfast standpoint of the working class, as well as scientific farsightedness, unusual wisdom, distinguished leadership ability and noble virtue.
Kim Hyong Jik passed away on June 5, 1926. Despite the great grief he felt upon the loss of his father, Kim Il Sung drew great strength from the valuable inheritance left by him-the concept of Aim High, preparedness for the three contingencies (death from hunger, from a beating and from cold), the gaining of comrades, and two pistols. He was firmly resolved to give his all to the struggle to liberate the country at any cost, true to the will of his father.
Around this time the June 10th Independence Movement took place, led by the early communists who had recently appeared in the arena of struggle following the March First 1919 Popular Uprising. This mass anti-Japanese demonstration ended in a failure, unable to overcome the ruthless suppression unleashed by the Japanese imperialists because of the machinations of the factionalists.
From the repeated failures of the anti-Japanese movement, Kim Il Sung drew a stronger ideological determination to defeat the Japanese imperialists and win back the country at all costs.
He was admitted to Hwasong Uisuk School in Huadian, China, in June 1926 through the good offices of his father's friends, who were keen to carry out his father's death-bed injunctions and his mother's wish to give him secondary education as well as his own aspiration to continue his studies at a higher level.
Hwasong Uisuk School was a two-year military and political school belonging to Jongui-bu. The school was founded at the beginning of 1925 with a view to training cadres for the Independence Army.
Kim Il Sung's admission to Hwasong Uisuk School conformed with his idea to win the independence of the country through an armed struggle.
After he entered the school, he analyzed and judged all phenomena with an unusually perspicacious eye and approached them in a critical way. Education given at this school involved only nationalist ideas and the outdated military training from the days of old Korea. Kim Il Sung was extremely disappointed with the ideological backwardness of the school. The school authorities rejected progressive ideas for no good reason, exalting the concept of nationalism alone. The limitations of Hwasong Uisuk School clearly showed those of the nationalist movement itself.
Kim Il Sung could see the whole aspect of the nationalist movement through Hwasong Uisuk School.
His expectations of Hwasong Uisuk School gradually withered.
He realized more keenly that the country's independence could not he won by employing the old method used'. by the champions of the nationalist movement, and made a firm resolve to open up the path to national liberation by employing a new method. He carried out energetic activities to find the answer.
He avidly read The Communist Manifesto and other Marxist-Leninist classics in order to seek a new path for the Korean revolution.
He closely studied, in connection with the actual situation in Korea, the principles of the revolution contained in the Marxist-Leninist classics. In the course of this, he persistently studied such problems as how to regain the country's independence, whom to define as the enemy and with whom to join hands in the struggle to liberate the country, and what should be the course of the building of socialism and communism following the country's independence.
He considered that, in order to open up a new path for the Korean revolution, it was necessary to train genuine communists of the new generation unaffected by sycophancy and factionalism. So he spread communist ideas among the students of Hwasong Uisuk School and united, one by one, revolutionary comrades who could share the same ideal as well as life and death.
As a genuine path for the Korean revolution was being explored and a hardcore force was being prepared, Kim Il Sung channeled great efforts into the work of forming a revolutionary vanguard organization of a new type.
He convened a meeting at the end of September 1926, at which he clarified the need to form such an organization. Then he emphasized the need to unite a larger number of comrades, and gave detailed assignments to the participants in the meeting.
After going through such a period of preparation Kim Il Sung convened a preliminary meeting for the formation of a revolutionary organization on October 10, 1926, and submitted for discussion the name of the organization, its character, its fighting program, and its rules and regulations, and proclaimed the formation of the Down-with-Imperialism Union (DIU) on October 17.
In his historic report Let Us Overthrow Imperialism, delivered at the inaugural meeting of' the DIU, Kim Il Sung analyzed in full the historic experience and lessons of the anti-Japanese struggle, and put forward the fighting program of the organization.
"The mission of the Down-with-Imperialism Union is, as its name suggests, to overthrow imperialism. Therefore, its program should set as its immediate task the defeat of Japanese imperialism, the sworn enemy of the Korean people, and the achievement of the liberation and independence of Korea, and as its final objective the building of socialism and communism in Korea and, further, the destruction of imperialism everywhere and the building of communism throughout the world."
Kim Il Sung said that, in order to carry out the program of the DIU properly, its members should be closely united in ideology and will and that, at the same time, the organization should be expanded and consolidated with reliable young men firmly resolved to devote their all to the struggle against Japanese imperialism, and that its members should work in accordance with strict rules and regulations of organizational life.
At the meeting Kim Il Sung was acclaimed as the head of the DIU, in accordance with the unanimous will of the participants.
The Down-with-Imperialism Union formed by Kim Il Sung was a vanguard organization to lead the Juche revolutionary cause to victory and a genuine communist revolutionary organization, the first of its kind in Korea.
With the formation of the DIU, a vanguard organization of the revolution had appeared, a fighting program was adopted, and leadership over the masses of the people had been realized. This means the start of the revolutionary activity of Kim Il Sung.
Following this occasion the Korean revolution entered a new era, in which it was to advance on the principle of independence. It became the starting point of the struggle to found a party of a new type, a revolutionary party of the Juche type in Korea.
At the time Kim Il Sung formed the DIU and took the lead in the revolution, a genuine beginning was made for the Korean revolution, and the glorious revolutionary cause of Juche started.
Kim II Sung left Hwasong Uisuk School after half a year of study, in order to carry out his revolutionary activities on a full-scale basis and moved the arena of his revolutionary activity to Jilin, a political center where many Korean anti-Japanese champions for independence and communists in Manchuria gathered. Jilin also had the advantage of being a transportation hub.
He stopped at Fusong before going to Jilin. There he formed the Saenal Children's Union, the first communist children's organization in Korea, in December 1926. He helped his mother Kang Pan Sok in her revolutionary activity of forming the Anti-Japanese Women's Association, the first revolutionary women's mass organization in Korea.
Kim Il Sung was admitted to the second-year class of the Jilin Yuwen Middle School in mid-January 1927.
Being a private school established by the newly-emerging public circles in the city, this school was comparatively progressive.
Kim Il Sung was more absorbed in the study of progressive ideas than in that of the subjects taught at the school, in order to search for the theory, strategy and tactics of the Korean revolution.
Availing himself of his favorable situation of being the chief librarian of the school, he read many Marxist-Leninist classics, such as The Communist Manifesto, Capital, The State and Revolution, and Wage Labor and Capital, and books expounding on them. He closely studied, in connection with the specific situation in Korea, those problems which had been clarified by preceding theory.
In the course of this, he came to have the viewpoint that one should approach Marxism-Leninism not as a dogma but as a practical weapon, and search for the truth not in abstract theory but in the practice of the Korean revolution.
In addition to political books, he avidly read many revolutionary novels, such as Mother and The Iron Flood, as well as other progressive literary works reflecting the actual life of those days. While reading, he enhanced his revolutionary awareness and working-class consciousness, witnessing unfair social phenomena, he hated the classes and society of exploiters and was more firmly resolved to transform the world. Moreover, he shaped revolutionary thought and theory on art and literature and acquired great creative ability, writing drama scripts and songs, and composing music.
In his days in Jilin Kim Il Sung made his revolutionary outlook on the world unshakable, and built the framework of an independent revolutionary idea on the basis of the accumulation and experience gained in the course of his revolutionary activity.
He pressed ahead with the work of training communists of the new generation equipped with progressive ideas, in order to carry out the Korean revolution successfully. To this end, he stepped up his work of spreading Marxism-Leninism among young people and students.
He organized a secret reading circle first at Yuwen Middle School with like-minded students. Then he rapidly spread it to various schools in Jilin and frequently organized readers' meetings, seminars, lecture meetings and oratorical contests to raise the ideological level of the students steadily, and united them in an organization.
In April 1927 he formed the Association of Korean Children in Jilin, a legal organization comprising Korean children in the city. In May that year he reorganized the Ryogil Association of Korean Students in Jilin, a legal organization of Korean students in the city backed by Korean nationalists, into the Ryugil Association of Korean Students in Jilin, turning it into a revolutionary body, from a purely friendship one.
The news of the rapid growth of the revolutionary force comprising young people and students of the new generation in and around Jilin spread to a wide area, with the result that a large number of young people got together in Jilin to receive the guidance of Kim Il Sung.
Kim Il Sung educated them to admit them to the DIU and, at the same time, spread this organization to various schools in Jilin.
As many branches of the DIU were formed and anti-Japanese sentiments mounted among the broad masses of youth and students, he reorganized the DIU into the Anti-Imperialist Youth League (AIYL), a more mass-based organization, on August 27, 1927. In subsequent days, the AIYL struck roots deep in all places where there were Korean youths, not to mention various schools and rural areas around Jilin.
Now that mass organizations had rapidly increased in number, and many fine communists of the new generation had grown up, it was necessary to form a new vanguard organization in order to develop the youth movement further.
Kim Il Sung, with deep insight into the situation of the youth movement and the requirements of the developing revolution, founded the Young Communist League of Korea (YCLK) on August 28, 1927.
The YCLK was not merely a youth organization; being a vanguard of the communists of the new generation entrusted with the mission of blazing the trail for the Korean revolution, it was a revolutionary vanguard building and leading mass organizations from all walks of life.
The YCLK played a great role in accelerating the organization of young people, training hardcore members and preparing the motive force of the Korean revolution. The forming of the YCLK gave a strong impetus to the activities of young communists to found a party of a new type and played a pivotal role in expediting its cause.
While working as head of the YCLK, Kim Il Sung also conducted the work of the young communist league along Chinese channels, thereby exercising a great influence among Chinese youths and students, too.
Extending the arena of his revolutionary activity to a wide area, he mingled closely with the people.
It was during the winter vacation of 1927 that he started to mingle with the people in real earnest under the motto "Go among the People!" in order to revolutionize the broad masses, regarding the people as his teacher and as the main motive force promoting the revolution.
When mixing with the people, he worked with them along the lines of awakening them with education in patriotism, revolutionary education, anti-imperialist education and class education as the main direction of effort, and uniting them in various kinds of mass organizations.
He worked hard to form mass organizations of different sectors of society comprising youths and other people from all walks of life.
On December 20, 1927 he organized the Paeksan Youth League, a mass-based anti-Japanese youth organization embracing young people in the neighborhood of Mt. Paektu, with those in the area of Fusong as the hard core.
In May 1928 he went to Jiaohe and formed the Jiaohe branch of the Anti-Imperialist Youth League with progressive, hardcore youths of the Ryosin Youth Association, which was under the influence of the Korean nationalists. He transformed the Ryosin Youth Association and the Lafa Youth Association in a revolutionary way by enhancing their role, built up a genuine communist force with progressive young people within the "General Federation of Korean Youth in East Manchuria" and united great numbers of anti-Japanese youths in a revolutionary organization by drawing them over from under the influence of the factionalists.
Regarding the winning over of the peasants as the key to the victory of the revolution, he went among them and made enthusiastic efforts to organize and revolutionize them. Thus he formed in Xinantun the Peasants' Union, the first revolutionary peasants' organization in Korea, on March 10, 1928. Moreover, on the basis of stimulating the class awakening of the working class in Jilin, he organized a revolutionary anti-Japanese trade union on August 25, 1928.
While forming revolutionary organizations and spreading them within Manchuria and various places in Korea, he worked hard to awaken the masses in various ways.
In particular, taking into deep consideration the role and importance of art and literature in the revolutionary struggle, he personally created a large number of art and literary works, including such classical revolutionary plays as An Jung Gun Shoots Ito Hirobumi, Blood at an International Conference, A Letter from a Daughter; the song and dance shows Prides of Thirteen Provinces and Unity Pole; and a revolutionary song, Song of Korea. He formed a cultural propaganda troupe with schoolchildren and, taking advantage of the holidays, traveled to many places to carry on brisk activities among the people to awaken them in a revolutionary way.
He was arrested by reactionary policemen while directing art performances in and around Fusong in January 1928. He was released thanks to the active struggle of the local people conducted under the guidance of Kang Pan Sok.
Paying profound attention to the education of the masses through revolutionary media, a powerful ideological weapon of the revolutionary struggle, he published Saenal, the first revolutionary newspaper in Korea, in Fusong on January 15, 1928. In the summer of the following year he wrote a textbook titled Peasants' Reader in Kalun, and educated people in revolutionary consciousness.
He set up evening schools in different places and remodeled schools in a revolutionary way, turning them into bases of mass education. Moreover, he worked hard to awaken the masses through lectures, explanatory talks, story-telling sessions, and the like.
At the same time as he brought youth and students as well as other broad sections of the people to revolutionary awareness and united them in revolutionary bodies, he organized and mobilized them, on the basis of scientific strategy and tactics, for the practical struggle against the Japanese imperialists and reactionary warlords.
In the summer of 1928 he organized and directed a student strike at the Yuwen Middle School in Jilin.
As the Yuwen Middle School in Jilin became more and more revolutionized as time went on, the Japanese imperialists and reactionary warlord instigated reactionary teachers and right-wing students to infringe upon the democratic order established at the school, bringing pressure to bear upon progressive teachers and suppressing the activities of progressive students. Kim Il Sung realized that unless the machinations of the enemy were smashed, it would be impossible to carry out either the pursuit of learning or the youth movement, free from any worries.
Kim Il Sung roused the members of the YCL and the AIYL to raise such demands as the improvement of the treatment of students, the provision of lessons in subjects requested by them, and an end to pressure upon progressive teachers and the principal. He also instigated them to energetically carry out propaganda among the students. At the same time, he skillfully organized and directed a variety of struggles, such as boycotting classes, holding meetings and distributing handbills, written appeals anal protests. Besides, he ensured that other schools made scrupulous preparations to join a strike in response to this.
Afraid that the students' strike might spread to the whole city, the warlord authorities were compelled to accept the demands of the students.
The victorious students' strike delivered a heavy blow to the reactionary warlords, who were in collusion with the Japanese imperialists, inspired the students and other young people with a conviction of victory and a new fighting spirit, and tempered them further through practical struggle.
With a view to checking and frustrating the scheme of the Japanese imperialists to advance further into the Chinese mainland, and to rousing, the masses of the people more powerfully for the anti-Japanese struggle, Kim Il Sung organized and led, in October and November 1928, an expanded and active anti-Japanese struggle against the Jilin-Hoeryong railway project of the Japanese imperialists, as well as a boycott of Japanese goods.
In early October that year he convened a meeting of cadres of the YCLK and the AIYL, at which he explained the aggressive nature of the Jilin-Hoeryong railway project of the Japanese imperialists and the infiltration of Japanese goods as well as the purpose and significance of the struggle against them, and put forward specific fighting slogans, direction of action and methods of struggle. Then he formed demonstration squads and appointed their leaders.
When full preparations for a demonstration had been made, with the opening ceremony of the Jilin-Dunhua railway just ahead, each school in Jilin held a meeting simultaneously at which they issued a letter of protest against the Jilin-Hoeryong railway project. Then the students turned out in a demonstration.
Standing in the van of their ranks, Kim Il Sung powerfully encouraged the demonstration.
Thousands of youths and students, their spirits high, loudly shouted anti-Japanese slogans, and broad sections of the people enthusiastically joined them. Alarmed by the demonstration, the Japanese imperialists were compelled to postpone the opening ceremony of the Jilin-Dunhua railway for an indefinite period. The anti-Japanese struggle that had started in Jilin spread to the whole of Manchuria. As the demonstrations mounted and spread to wider areas, Kim Il Sung led the masses in the struggle to boycott Japanese goods ceaselessly.
The victory of the 40-odd day struggle to oppose the Jilin-Hoeryong railway project and boycott Japanese goods, a struggle which was led by Kim II Sung, dealt a severe blow to the Japanese imperialist aggressors who had been plotting to realize their wild designs to invade Manchuria and to the Chinese reactionary warlords who were in collusion with them. Through this struggle, Kim Il Sung was convinced more firmly than ever that the strength of the masses was inexhaustible and that they would display invincible strength if they were organized and mobilized properly.
This incident marked a historic moment when the anti-Japanese mass struggle developed to a new stage under the guidance of Kim Il Sung.
In the autumn of 1929 Kim Il Sung roused youth, students and other sections of the masses for the fight to defend the Soviet Union in order to hold in check the anti-Soviet machinations of the Kuomintang government and the reactionary warlords who had provoked the "East China Railway incident" at the instigation of the Japanese imperialist.
In the course of this struggle the communists from among the new generation were further seasoned.
In order to unite the broad anti-Japanese forces, Kim Il Sung developed a strong momentum for smashing the machinations of the bourgeois nationalists and factionalists.
He refuted ideologically and theoretically the reliance of the bourgeois nationalists on foreign forces and their national nihilism, as well as the misguided Right and Left sophistries of the factionalists. At the same time, in order to neutralize the influence of the noxious reactionary ideas spread by them, he ensured that active propaganda work was conducted among the youth, students and other sections of the masses by means of lectures, art performances, discussions and publications, to give them a clear understanding of the reactionary nature and harm of the misguided "isms and doctrines".
While the leaders of the Jongui-bu, Sinmin-bu and Chamui-bu, which were nationalist organizations, idled away their time in the scramble for higher positions over the problem of merging these bodies, Kim Il Sung met the leaders and reasoned with them in earnest about their mistakes. He created the revolutionary drama Three Pretenders, which satirized them, and showed it to them. This drama was instrumental in getting them to combine the three organizations to form the Kukmin-bu, even though it was only for form's sake.
In the summer of 1928 Kim Il Sung saw to it that the divisive machinations of the factionalists who sought to hold "hegemony" over the youth movement by forming a "General Federation of Korean Youth in China" were checked and frustrated. In the autumn of the following year, when the Kukmin-bu held a meeting of the General Federation of Korean Youth in South Manchuria and attempted to get the youth organizations of Korean in and around Manchuria under its control, he personally took part in the meeting in the capacity of representative of the Paeksan Youth League aid dealt a blow to the divisive scheme of the nationalists. Afterwards, he personally wrote a letter of protest exposing the Kukmin-bu's brutal massacre of progressive youth and made it public. As a result, the terrorists of the Kukmin-bu were denounced by the masses of the people, and the people's trust in and expectations of Kim Il Sung increased still further.
Through the practical struggle the communists of the new generation and members of the revolutionary organizations keenly realized that they had to receive the wise guidance of an outstanding leader without fail if they were to emerge victorious from the revolution.
Holding Kim Il Sung in high esteem and following him, Kim Hyok, Cha Kwang Su and other communists of the new generation, together with other people, started to call him Han Pyol (Han meaning "one" and Pyol meaning "star"). They did this to express their hope that he would become the guiding star of the Korean revolution brightly shining over the three thousand-ri land, rising high in the sky of Korea which had been darkened by the tragedy of national ruin. And they created the immortal revolutionary paean Star of Korea, which sang the praises of Kim Il Sung.
Kim Il Sung's days at Yuwen Middle School in Jilin, when he formed and expanded the YCL and the AIYL and sowed the seeds of the revolution in various places, closely mixing with the workers, peasants and other sections of the people and going beyond the limits of the students, were the highest stage in the development of the youth movement conducted by him.
Exploring a new path for the Korean revolution independently, Kim Il Sung created the immortal Juche idea through his energetic ideological and theoretical activities.
Creating a new guiding ideology for the revolution was raised as a particularly important and urgent problem in Korea due to the peculiarities of its historic development and the complex and arduous character of the revolution.
Kim Il Sung repeatedly contemplated and studied in order to create the guiding ideology for the revolution, regarding as his ideological and mental resources Kim Hyong Jik's lofty idea Aim High, his spirit of winning independence by the efforts of the Koreans themselves, his own idea that "People are God" which he had made the maxim of his life and struggle from his childhood as well as the idea and spirit of loving the country, the nation and his fellow men.
He made a close study of the working-class revolutionary ideas and theories of the preceding period and the experience of the international communist movement in connection with the practice of the Korean revolution. In this course he was firmly convinced that the existing ideas and theories and the experience of other countries could not give correct answers to all the problems raised by the Korean revolution, and that these problems must be solved in an original way on the responsibility of the Korean people themselves in conformity with their own actual conditions proceeding from their desire and the specific situation in Korea.
The period which Kim Il Sung spent in prison was an important historic phase in the evolution of the Juche idea.
In the autumn of 1929 he was arrested by Chinese reactionary policemen and served a prison term in Jilin prison until early the following May.
Even in prison he did not discontinue his revolutionary activities for a moment. In the course of comprehensively analyzing and reviewing the experiences and lessons of the national liberation struggle and communist movement in Korea and the experience of the revolutionary movement in other countries, he discovered the truth of the revolution, which Served as the starting point of the Juche idea.
Kim Il Sung said:
"I analyzed the situations of the nationalist and communist movements in our country and decided that the revolution should not be conducted in that way. 1 believed that the revolution in my country would emerge victorious only when it was undertaken on our own responsibility and by the efforts of our own people, and that all the problems arising in the revolution must be solved independently and creatively. This was the starting-point of the Juche idea, as it is known nowadays."
The fatal defect of the independence fighters surviving from the preceding generation was that they were isolated from the masses of the people because they did not believe in their strength and averted their eyes from them. Another drawback was that they were extremely engrossed in fictional strife, flunkeyism and dogmatism.
Kim Il Sung keenly analyzed this essential shortcoming of the preceding-generation campaigners for independence and, in the course of this, he became convinced that the masters of the revolution were the masses of the people, that the revolutionary struggle could emerge victorious only when they were educated, organized and mobilized, that the revolution should be carried out on the strength of one's own people and on one's own responsibility instead of conducting it after obtaining someone else's recognition or under someone else's instructions, and that all problems arising in the revolution should be solved independently and creatively to meet one's own situation.
Kim Il Sung not only discovered the truth which served as the starting point of the Juche idea, but also decided upon the Juche-oriented line and fighting policies of the Korean revolution.
At the historic Kalun Meeting he clarified the principles of the Juche idea he had evolved while serving time in Jilin prison. Later, while leading the revolutionary struggle and construction work, he continued to develop the Juche idea in depth in the course of providing new solutions to the problems raised by the revolutionary practice.
After he was set free from prison, thanks to his active efforts to he released, Kim Il Sung abandoned his studies at the Yuwen Middle School and became a full-time revolutionary.
He left Jilin for Dunhua, an area favorable for establishing contact with the various counties of eastern Manchuria. There he put the revolutionary organizations in order and restructured them. At the same time, he convened a meeting of the hardcore members of the Young Communist League and Anti-Imperialist Youth League at Sidaohuanggou, at which he explained the Juche-oriented revolutionary line, and the strategy and tactics, he had worked out in prison. He continued to mull over and delve into these matters to bring them to perfection.
Kim Il Sung called a meeting of the leading personnel of the YCL and AIYL at Kalun from June 30 to July 2, 1930, and clarified the path of the Korean revolution.
In his historic report The Path of the Korean Revolution made at the meeting, he made an overall analysis of the prevailing situation and the historic lesson of the preceding movement, and elucidated the principles of the Juche idea in an original way.
Kim Il Sung said:
"The masters of the revolutionary struggle are the masses of the people, and only when they are organized and mobilized can they win the revolutionary struggle."
He said that one should mix with the masses of the people and organize and mobilize them in order to lead the revolution to victory, and that one must solve all problems arising in the revolution independently on one's own responsibility and to meet one's particular situation. He emphasized the need to maintain a firm stand and attitude that the masters of the Korean revolution were the Korean people and that the Korean revolution should always be carried out by the efforts of the Koreans themselves to suit the Korean situation.
Kim Il Sung defined the character and main task of the Korean revolution on the principles of the Juche idea.
"The main task of the Korean revolution ... is to overthrow the Japanese imperialists and win independence for Korea, and, at the same time, to liquidate feudal relations and introduce democracy.
"In view of the main task of the Korean revolution, its character at the present stage is anti-imperialist, anti-feudal democratic."
The concept of the anti-imperialist, anti-feudal democratic revolution elucidated by Kim Il Sung for the first time in history was a social revolution of a new type essentially distinguished from a bourgeois-democratic or a socialist revolution. It was a revolution which had to be carried out as a matter of priority for people in colonies and semi-colonies to win independence.
Kim Il Sung defined the motive power of an anti-imperialist, anti-feudal democratic revolution as the broad anti-imperialist forces involving workers, peasants, youth and students, intellectuals, petty-bourgeoisie, conscientious national capitalists and religious persons, and that the target of the revolution was the Japanese imperialists and the landlords, capitalists, pro-Japanese elements and traitors to the nation who were in collusion with them.
He taught that, in order to lead the Korean revolution to victory, it was necessary, first of all, to overthrow the Japanese imperialists and the reactionary forces who were hand in glove with them, and win national liberation and independence. In addition, he said that a people's government defending the interests of the masses of the people must be established and that, even after carrying out an anti-imperialist, anti-feudal democratic revolution, the revolution should be continued, so as to build socialism and communism. Furthermore, the world revolution should be carried out.
Kim Il Sung clarified in full the strategic and tactical problems for the fulfillment of the main task of the Korean revolution.
He set forth the line of anti-Japanese armed struggle. He made it clear that, in view of the historic experiences and lessons of the anti-Japanese struggle in Korea and the law-governed requirement of the national liberation struggle in colonies, violent actions of the masses should be developed into an organized armed struggle. He taught that, as an immediate task, the Korean Revolutionary Army, a revolutionary armed organization, should be formed with young communists to accumulate a variety of experiences for an armed struggle.
Kim Il Sung put forward the line of the formation of an anti-Japanese national united front.
He said that, in order to defeat the Japanese imperialists and liberate the whole nation with the efforts of the Koreans themselves, it was necessary to firmly unite, under the anti-Japanese banner, all the forces having anti-Japanese sentiments, including religious persons and conscientious national capitalists, not to mention workers and peasants.
He set forth the policy of founding a revolutionary party independently.
He pointed out the need to draw a serious lesson from the dissolution of the Korean Communist Party and wage a struggle to found a new party on a sound basis. He said that a new revolutionary party must be founded without fail by the efforts of the Koreans themselves and that, to this end, the basic organizations of the party must be formed first after making full preparations, and steadily expanded and strengthened, instead of proclaiming the party center without any preparations. He further explained that the preparations for the founding of a party should be closely combined with the struggle against the Japanese imperialists.
The kernel of the historic report made by Kim Il Sung is the Juche idea.
The Kalun Meeting was a historic event which proclaimed the creation of the Juche idea and the Juche-oriented revolutionary line.
With the Kalun Meeting as a momentum, the anti-Japanese national liberation struggle and communist movement in Korea entered a new path along which they were waged according to the Juche idea, an absolutely scientific and revolutionary guiding ideology, and the Juche-oriented revolutionary line.
Following the Kalun Meeting, Kim Il Sung put his primary efforts into the work of founding a new type of party.
The work for forming a new type of party organization was accompanied by a struggle to overcome a variety of obstacles and difficulties.
The factionalists remaining in the communist ranks in those days continued to engage in factional strife, launching a campaign to reconstruct the dissolved Korean Communist Party at home and abroad; in addition to this, the principle of one party for one country laid down by the Comintern made some people have a concept that it was impossible for Korean communists to found their own party in Manchuria.
In view of this situation, Kim Il Sung concluded that it would not run counter to the principle of one party for one country if a Korean party did not exist together with the Chinese party through the organization of a separate party centre. So he decided to found a new-type party with the communists of the new generation as the masters instead of relying on the old generation, by forming basic party organizations first and expanding and strengthening them instead of proclaiming the party centre.
On July 3, 1930 he convened in Kalun a meeting for the formation of a party organization. At the meeting he sponsored the admission of the leading personnel of the YCL and the AIYL to the party, and solemnly proclaimed the formation of the party organization.
In his historic speech On the Formation of the Party Organization delivered at the meeting, Kim Il Sung reclarified the Juche-oriented policy for the building of a party organization, and put forward the position and mission of the newly formed first party organization as well as the task facing the members of the party organization.
Kim Il Sung saw to it that the first party organization was named the Society for Rallying Comrades. That name embodied the high aim and will of Kim Il Sung who had taken the first step in the revolution by winning over comrades, and who was determined to develop the revolution in depth and achieve its final victory by continually discovering and rallying those comrades who were prepared to share their fate with him.
Kim Il Sung said:
"The first party organization--the Society for Rallying Comrades--was the embryo and seed of our Party; it was an organization with the importance of a parent body in forming and expanding the basic organizations of the party."
With the formation of the first party organization, young communists and other people were able to press ahead more strongly with the preparations for the founding of a party and with the anti-Japanese national liberation struggle under the unified guidance of a genuine vanguard organization of the revolution.
Kim Il Sung founded the magazine Bolshevik to play the role of the ideological organ of the first party organization.
Following these steps, Kim Il Sung organized the Korean Revolutionary Army (KRA) in Guyushu, Yitong County, on July 6, 1930, as the first step in preparations for an armed struggle.
Kim Il Sung made a historic speech The Mission and Main Task of the Korean Revolutionary Army at the meeting of Party and YCL cadres held for the formation of this army.
He said that the mission and main task of the KRA was, through active political activities and military operations, to train a hard core for an armed struggle, procure weapons needed for this struggle, accumulate military experience and firmly unite the broad masses of the people to make full preparations for an organized anti-Japanese armed struggle.
The KRA was the first armed organization of the Korean communists guided by the great Juche idea and a political and paramilitary organization to make preparations for an anti-Japanese armed struggle.
Kim Il Sung organized the ranks of the KRA into several corps, appointed their heads and gave weapons to the men.
He dispatched small groups of the KRA to various parts of Manchuria such as Changbai and Fusong and to many areas of Korea to carry out vigorous political activities and military operations, such as rallying the broad masses of the people around the revolutionary organizations by educating them, sweeping away the Japanese imperialist aggressor troops and reactionary policemen, eliminating secret agents and stooges, and procuring weapons. Moreover, he ensured that the finest young people tempered in the revolutionary organizations were admitted to the KRA and patriotic young people of worker and peasant origin within the Independence Army were drawn into the revolutionary army through re-education. Further, he made sure that an advanced course was opened at the Samgwang School in Guyushu, and systematically trained politically and militarily competent commanding personnel. He organized short military and political training courses, and tempered the hard core of the revolutionary armed force.
Kim Il Sung pushed ahead with the work of laying the mass foundation for an armed struggle.
He traveled to different areas of Manchuria such as Dunhua, Kalun, Jilin, Hailong, Jiaohe, Harbin, Yanji and Wangqing where the evil consequences of the May 30 Uprising and the August 1 Uprising were serious, disguising himself several times even in a single day. There he restored and expanded the wrecked revolutionary organizations.
Once Kim Il Sung faced a critical situation, being pursued by the enemy, during his underground activities. At that time a fighter for independence turned his back on him abandoning his sense of duty and friendship as an old acquaintance for fear of future troubles. Contrary to the contemptible behavior of this man, a nameless country woman of Jiaohe helped him by displaying a spirit of self-sacrifice. From her righteous act he felt more keenly the revolutionary philosophy that the revolutionaries should always trust and rely on the people.
In those days Kim Il Sung had contact with the Comintern through its liaison office in Harbin and through the officials sent by it from such areas as Jiajiatun and Wujiazi.
The Comintern expressed full support for the Juche-oriented revolutionary line put forward by Kim Il Sung at the Kalun Meeting as well as for the principles of independence and creativity which constitute the lifeblood of the Korean revolution. Moreover, pinning great hope on him, it entrusted him with the work of the Chief Secretary of the YCL in the Jidong area and advised him several times to go to Moscow and study at the Communist University administered by it. Nevertheless, he said that his teacher was the masses of the people and that he would study the theory and method of the Korean revolution among them. So, instead of going to Moscow for study, he went among the people in eastern Manchuria adjacent to Korea and those in northern Korea and carried out energetic revolutionary activities, sharing weal and woe with them.
In the autumn of 1930 Kim Il Sung went to eastern Manchuria and restored and consolidated the ruined revolutionary organizations in Dalazi, Helong County, and Shixian district, Wangqing County. At the same time, he saw to it that new basic party organizations were formed in various areas with YCL members tempered and tested in the struggle and hard cores of worker and peasant origin, and that revolutionary organization districts were set up in different counties along the Tuman River.
At the end of September 1930, Kim Il Sung came to the Onsong area of Korea and set forth the policy of building the areas of northern Korea along the Tuman River as the strategic base of the revolution. On October 1, he convened on Turu Peak, Onsong County, a meeting for the formation of a party organization and formed a party organization with the leading activists of the revolutionary organizations in this area.
The formation of a party organization in the Onsong area was a breakthrough in laying the foundation for party building in Korea, and a turning point in powerfully promoting the anti-Japanese struggle of the people at home.
Kim Il Sung paid great attention to the revolutionization of the rural communities, regarding the peasant masses, who comprised the overwhelming majority of the Korean population, along with the working class, as the main revolutionary force.
He sent men of the KRA to various rural areas. Moreover, from October of 1930 to the beginning of the next year he worked in Wujiazi, Huaide County, and built this area into an example of rural revolutionization.
Wujiazi, which the nationalists had tried to transform into an "ideal village", was the last bulwark of the nationalist forces in central Manchuria.
Km Il Sung first went among the bigoted influential people of the village and led them to get rid of their outdated way of thinking through tireless explanation and educative influence. Then he reformed the mass organizations under nationalist influence in a revolutionary way. He got everyone, not just the youth, to lead a political life in a certain organization -- young people in the Anti-Imperialist Youth League, old people in the Peasants' Union, women in the Women's Association and children in the Children's Expeditionary Corps. Moreover, he had the village council, a local autonomous administrative organ, reformed into a revolutionary autonomous committee. He also saw to it that the content of the education given at the local Samsong School was made revolutionary and that free education was put into effect. Moreover, he saw to it that a night school was set up, and young and middle-aged people, including women, were given education. Furthermore, he oversaw the publication of the magazine Nongu, an organ of the Peasants' Union. He also created and put on the stage the revolutionary opera The Flower Girl, and produced other literary and artistic works. In addition, he made sure that revolutionary songs such as The Song of the Red Flag and Revolutionary Song were disseminated widely. In this way he awakened the class consciousness of the masses and roused them to engage vigorously in the anti-Japanese struggle.
Thanks to Kim Il Sung's skilful political work among the masses, Wujiazi was turned into a revolutionary village, and its experience was widely publicized, with the result that various areas of central Manchuria were built as reliable bases for the activities of the KRA, and the mass foundation of the armed struggle was expanded still further.
Kim Il Sung's comrades and other people who felt his greatness more fully in those days entrusted their destiny entirely to him. They thought they could not compare him, such a great and noble man who would lead Korea in the future, merely to a morning star, and so expressed their earnest wish to connect his esteemed name with the sun that gives light and heat to the whole world and gives life to all things.
Pyon Tae U and other influential people in Wujiazi who represented the preceding generation, and such young communists as Choe Il Chon renamed him Kim Il Sung(a homonym for Il Sung meaning "one star", and meaning "the sun to come"), reflecting the desire of all the people that he would become the sun that would save the nation as well as their revolutionary faith and strong will to hold him in high esteem for ever as the great leader of the nation.
In view of the tense situation at this time when the invasion of Manchuria by the Japanese imperialists was imminent, Kim Il Sung convened a meeting of the commanders of the KRA and heads of the revolutionary organizations in Wujiazi in December 1930 in order to sum up their revolutionary activities in central Manchuria and adopt measures for speeding up the preparations for an armed struggle.
In his historic speech Let Us Further Expand and Develop the Revolutionary Movement to Meet the Requirements of the Prevailing Situation delivered at the meeting, he reviewed the success and experience gained in the struggle to implement the Juche-oriented revolutionary line after the Kalun Meeting, and set forth the task of shifting the main arena of struggle to eastern Manchuria and making thoroughgoing preparations there for waging an out-and-out armed struggle against the Japanese imperialists.
The Wujiazi Meeting was of great importance in making great strides in the Korean revolution -- in bringing it to the stage of armed struggle. This meeting confirmed once again the determination of Kim Il Sung to switch from the youth and student movement and underground movement in the rural areas to the stage of armed struggle in the form of launching a decisive offensive against the enemy; it also made clear the direct way to the great anti-Japanese war.
Following the Wujiazi Meeting, Kim Il Sung shifted the center of his revolutionary activities to eastern Manchuria.
Eastern Manchuria was not only directly adjacent to Korea naturally and topographically, but the overwhelming majority of its population was composed of Koreans and its good class composition offered favorable conditions for waging an armed struggle. Leaving for eastern Manchuria, Kim Il Sung put forward, as the goal of the first stage of this work, the two tasks of reviewing the evil consequences of the May 30 Uprising and setting forth a correct organizational line capable of uniting the broad masses as one political force and arming the communists of the new generation with this line.
On his way to eastern Manchuria he was again arrested by reactionary warlords, and served a term of about 20 days in Changchun prison. He was set free thanks to the strong protest of local people who were allied with the communists.
After he arrived in eastern Manchuria, Kim Il Sung organized a short course for the men of the KRA and the hardcore members of the revolutionary organizations in Dunhua in March 1931. In the short course he clarified the task and way for stepping up the preparations for an anti-Japanese armed struggle on a full scale as well as the measures needed for providing unified guidance to the basic party organizations and uniting the revolutionary masses organizationally. Following this, he guided the work of the revolutionary organizations in Antu, Yanji, Helong and Wangqing counties and in the areas of Jongsong and Onsong in Korea.
With a view to stepping up the preparations for armed struggle, Kim Il Sung channeled great efforts into building strong revolutionary forces.
He convened a meeting of political workers and heads of underground revolutionary organizations in Kongsudok, Phunggyedong, Phunggok Sub-county, Jongsong County in May 1931. At the meeting he set forth the task of building an armed force for organizing and waging an armed struggle, uniting the broad masses of the people as one political force and making the mountainous areas along the Tuman River the center of armed struggle.
The Kongsudok Meeting was a turning point in building strong Juche-oriented revolutionary forces for organizing and waging the anti-Japanese armed struggle.
On the basis of a full understanding of the situation in Jiandao and in the areas along the Tuman River in Korea, Kim Il Sung called a meeting of Party and YCL cadres ( the Spring Mingyuegou Meeting) at Mingyuegou, Yanji County, in mid-May 1931.
At the meeting he delivered a historic speech, titled Let Us Repudiate the "Left" Adventurist Line and Follow the Revolutionary Organizational Line. In this speech he explained the essence of the May 30 Uprising and the cause of its failure, analyzed and reviewed its evil consequences and lessons, and elucidated the revolutionary organizational line of uniting the whole nation as one political force by firmly rallying the main masses of the revolution and closely banding together the anti-Japanese forces from all walks of life, as well as the task for implementing this line.
The revolutionary organizational line advanced by Kim Il Sung became the guiding principle to be adhered to by the Korean communists in preparing strong revolutionary forces for organizing and waging the anti-Japanese armed struggle.
Following the meeting, Kim Il Sung concentrated his efforts on the Antu area, which had favorable conditions for his making preparations for organizing and waging the anti-Japanese armed struggle. He organized the party committee of Xiaoshahe District, Antu County, in mid-June 1931 and sent political workers to various areas to form basic party organizations. Moreover, he ensured that YCL organizations were expanded and that such anti-Japanese mass organizations as the Peasants' Association, the Anti-Imperialist League, the Revolutionary Mutual Aid Society and the Children's Expeditionary Corps were formed.
On the basis of the success and the experience he gained in the area of Antu, he visited such areas as Helong, Yanji and Wangqing in the summer and early autumn of the same year, and united the activists who had been dispersed after the May 30 Uprising, thus expanding the revolutionary network to wide areas of eastern Manchuria.
Drawing on the success achieved in the struggle to follow the revolutionary organizational line, Kim Il Sung set forth the policy of waging a powerful harvest season struggle in various districts of Jiandao with revolutionary organizations to train the revolutionary people further amid a mass struggle and saw that various rural communities in eastern Manchuria launched a harvest season struggle simultaneously in the autumn of 1931.
Under the leadership of Kim Il Sung, the harvest season struggle developed into a large-scale and organized violent struggle involving over 100,000 peasants in eastern Manchuria, dealing a heavy blow to the Japanese imperialist aggressors and reactionary landowners and awakening and tempering the broad anti-Japanese masses still further in the practical struggle.
The Japanese imperialist aggressors provoked the "Manchurian incident" on September 18, 1931, and started an armed invasion of Manchuria. In view of this, Kim Il Sung pointed out that starting organized armed struggle was an urgent task which brooked no further delay, at a meeting of Party and YCL leading members held in Dunhua toward the end of September, at the meeting of the heads of the revolutionary organizations in Songjiang district, Antu, and at the meeting of political workers and heads of underground revolutionary organizations held in Kwangmyong Village, Jongsong County, in October of the same year. At the same time, he set forth the task of stepping up the preparations for armed struggle on a full scale. The meeting held in Kwangmyong Village was a clarion call for the revolutionaries and the masses of the people in the homeland to prepare for armed struggle.
Kim Il Sung devoted immense energy to contemplation and study for choosing the main form and method of armed struggle.
He read a variety of books on military science, such as Sun-tzu's Art of War, Three Warring Kingdoms, The Military Books of the Eastern Country and Instructions on Military Science. He also made a close study of the struggle of distinguished partisan leaders of foreign countries, and of a variety of combat methods employed by famous generals of the Righteous Volunteers' Army of Korea and of the Imjin Patriotic War. In the course of this, he became firmly convinced that it was necessary to wage flexible and highly mobile guerrilla warfare in order to win a victory in the fight against the numerically and technically superior Japanese imperialist aggressor army.
As a result of the fact that the political and military preparations for an anti-Japanese armed struggle had been made under the wise leadership of Kim Il Sung, the anti-Japanese national liberation struggle in Korea was able at last to develop to the stage of organized armed struggle.
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