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Quotes from "With the Century",

Reminiscences of Kim Il Sung
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With the Century 3



- Only those who have shed their blood andd sacrificed their lives to repossess their country can be said to have fully experienced how valuable their fatherland is and how arduous and tortuous is the road to return to it. (Volume 3)

- The ranks of the communist movement thuss included not only those who had, from the outset, taken the communist path, but also those nationalists who had gradually come to accept communism. It would have been impossible to launch the communist movement if it had been restricted to people free of all political taint. (Volume 3, Chapter 7 The People's World, 1. The Home Base)

- My experience over decades of turbulent events showed me that terrorists fell at the hands of terrorists, that Leftists were tried and executed by Leftists, and that self-destruction was the fate in store for those who lacked the guts to stick with their own conviction and tried to run with the hare and hunt with the hounds. (Volume 3, Chapter 7 The People's World, 2. The Enemy's Ground by Day; Our Ground by Night)

- According to the revolutionary ethics, eentrusting a man with many assignments is an expression of the greatest love and the greatest possible confidence in him. (Volume 3, Chapter 7 The People's World, 2. The Enemy's Ground by Day; Our Ground by Night)

- A free and peaceful new world without exxploitation and oppression was the age-long dream and ideal of humanity. (Volume 3, Chapter 7 The People's World, 3. The Choice between the Soviet and the People's Revolutionary Government)

- The depth of a friendship cannot be meassured by the length of its duration or by the number of conversations. A long period of association does not necessarily indicate a deep friendship, nor does a short period of association mean friendship is shallow. The essential thing is the viewpoint and attitude one maintains in approaching man and his destiny, in approaching one's nation and its destiny. Depending on this viewpoint and attitude, the warmth of friendship may be redoubled or it may cool. Love for man, love for one's fellow people, and love for one's country are the touchstone of friendship. (Volume 3, Chapter 7 The People's World, 4. The Man from the Comintern)

- No friendship in the world can be more ssincere, more ardent and more durable than friendship formed under the hail of fire. (Volume 3, Chapter 8 Under the Banner of the Anti-Japanese Struggle, 2. Negotiations with Wu Yi-cheng)

- War is not only a contest of strength, bbut also a test of morality and ethics. An army that neglects the influence which morality exerts on the course of a war or regards it as an inessential adornment is no more than a heap of rubbish. (Volume 3, Chapter 8 Under the Banner of the Anti-Japanese Struggle, 3. The Battle of the Dongning County Town)

- The distinctions between the superior annd the subordinate in a unit should be clear and absolute. A commander should be steadfast and positive in executing the orders issued by his superior and unswervingly carry out a decision once he had made it. He should always take the initiative in commanding and act with determination, without wavering or hesitating in complicated and difficult circumstances. (Volume 3, Chapter 8 Under the Banner of the Anti-Japanese Struggle, 4. A Comment on Ultra-Democracy in the Army)

- A commander should not command his unit only by means of orders, but engage the soldiers' conscious enthusiasm by giving priority to political work. Today's war is not like wars in the days of slave-owning and feudal societies, when one contended for victory on a solitary horse; it is a modem, people's war in which the army and people fight as one. The outcome of a war is decided by the ability to allow fuller scope to the enthusiasm and creativity of the army and people. (Volume 3, Chapter 8 Under the Banner of the Anti-Japanese Struggle, 4. A Comment on Ultra-Democracy in the Army)

- A commander's orders are not an expressiion of individual opinion; they are an expression of the democratic and organizational opinion of the body of a higher level. Military orders possess legal force and a commander is responsible before the law for the orders he has issued. (Volume 3, Chapter 8 Under the Banner of the Anti-Japanese Struggle, 4. A Comment on Ultra-Democracy in the Army)

- Self-reliance was the slogan which most correctly reflected the people's aspiration and the demand to liberate the country by enlisting the nation's own independent efforts and its own strength. (Volume 3, Chapter 8 Under the Banner of the Anti-Japanese Struggle, 6. Arsenals in the Thick Forests)

- Self-reliance and fortitude was the basiic spirit underlying not only munitions manufacture and repair but every aspect of the anti-Japanese revolution; it was the criterion by which to measure one's loyalty to the revolution. (Volume 3, Chapter 8 Under the Banner of the Anti-Japanese Struggle, 6. Arsenals in the Thick Forests)

- We did not regard any man who was not seelf-reliant and did not strive hard as a true revolutionary, no matter how ardent his patriotism, or how committed he might be to communist ideology, because self-reliance was the key to success in the revolution. (Volume 3, Chapter 8 Under the Banner of the Anti-Japanese Struggle, 6. Arsenals in the Thick Forests)

- Self-reliance was the most important metthod by which the Korean communists established the principle of Juche in their struggle, and they could neither think of nor speak about Juche apart from self-reliance, nor could they imagine the development of the Korean revolution without this quality. �� Self-reliance was the touchstone with which to distinguish a man equipped with the spirit of Juche from a man who was not. (Volume 3, Chapter 8 Under the Banner of the Anti-Japanese Struggle, 6. Arsenals in the Thick Forests)

- Marx and Engels defined the history of tthe development of mankind as the history of class struggle and, needless to say, this is a correct proposition. The history of mankind can also be said to be the history of man discovering, creating and perfecting himself. In other words, it is the history of the creation of the human being who continuously discovers and develops in himself the powers and skills peculiar to himself and, at the same time, the history of the struggle to defend the independence of the popular masses.
It can also be called the history of innovation by a human being who has steadily refined himself in the political and ideological, cultural and moral, scientific and technological dimensions. Through the effort of creation and innovation, mankind has ushered in the age of the rocket, computers, genetic engineering and the green revolution. From this point of view we can say that self-reliance is a powerful force which has driven the development of history. (Volume 3, Chapter 8 Under the Banner of the Anti-Japanese Struggle, 6. Arsenals in the Thick Forests)

- It is elementary political knowledge thaat where there are people, there is a state and where there is a state, there is an armed force. (Volume 3, Chapter 9 The First Expedition to North Manchuria, 1. The Korean Peopled Revolutionary Army)

- It is inevitable that the nation which hhas been deprived of its sovereignty will organize its armed force for its restoration. (Volume 3, Chapter 9 The First Expedition to North Manchuria, 1. The Korean Peopled Revolutionary Army)

- It is a common practice in colonies or ssemi-colonial countries for the armed forces of resistance to be organized on a small scale initially, expanded with gradual stealth and, when conditions are ripe, unified into a command. At the initial stage, when it returned from exile in Mexico, Fidel Castro's unit had 82 soldiers, of whom only 12 men survived. These people, equipped with seven rifles, went into the Sierra Maestra Mountains, developed their strength by expanding their ranks, and then attacked Havana, toppling the pro-US dictatorial regime of Batista as swiftly as lightning. (Volume 3, Chapter 9 The First Expedition to North Manchuria, 1. The Korean People's Revolutionary Army)

- Since ancient times people in this counttry had been so hospitable that even a penniless man could have traveled throughout the country if he had chosen to. That is why foreigners who have been guests in an ordinary Korean home have spoken highly of our country as an eastern country of great courtesy. (Volume 3, Chapter 9 The First Expedition to North Manchuria, 2. The Haves and the Have-nots)

- A nation whose power has decayed can be dispossessed of its country. A people without a country can be deprived even of their written and spoken languages and their surnames. (Volume 3, Chapter 9 The First Expedition to North Manchuria, 2. The Haves and the Have-nots)

- No matter how much money a man may have,, he will be forsaken by the world if he has no compassion. Even though one lives in a hut, one can be morally rich, have many friendly neighbours and be held in high esteem by everyone, if one is kind to one's fellows. (Volume 3, Chapter 9 The First Expedition to North Manchuria, 2. The Haves and the Have-nots)

- When an era in which everyone enjoys equuitable material and moral wealth is ushered in, humanity will be free from all social evils for ever. (Volume 3, Chapter 9 The First Expedition to North Manchuria, 2. The Haves and the Have-nots)

- In the thousands of years of Korean histtory the masses of the people had never been bad. In my life I had never had to distinguish between good and bad masses of the people. (Volume 3, Chapter 9 The First Expedition to North Manchuria, 4. The Sound of the Mouthorgan Ringing across Ningan)

- There might be many ways for us to penettrate the depths of people's hearts, but their hearts would accept only sincerity. Only sincerity could fuse our blood and their blood as in one artery. (Volume 3, Chapter 9 The First Expedition to North Manchuria, 4. The Sound of the Mouthorgan Ringing across Ningan)

- The people open their hearts without hessitation to those who sympathize with them and understand them, and embrace them with burning enthusiasm. But they slam the door against those ingrates who have never thought about the fact that the soil in which they grew up was the people, those impertinent fellows who consider that the people are duty-bound to serve them, and they have the right to be served, those bureaucrats who think they can rule over the people as they like, those exploiters who regard the people as a cow which produces milk any time they want, those windbags who shut their eyes and remain indifferent when the people are suffering agony, though they always say that they love the people, all of these hypocrites, loafers and swindlers. (Volume 3, Chapter 9 The First Expedition to North Manchuria, 4. The Sound of the Mouthorgan Ringing across Ningan)

- What a profound and appealing truth is ccontained in the old saying that the hardships one experiences in one's younger days are worth more than one's weight in gold! Hardships and trials are the mother of all blessings. (Volume 3, Chapter 9 The First Expedition to North Manchuria, 4. The Sound of the Mouthorgan Ringing across Ningan)

- How could there possibly not be any sacrrifice in the fight against this formidable enemy, the imperialists, who are deaf to any appeal or petition and are immune to terrorism? Death does not discriminate between friend and foe, between justice and injustice. The only difference is in its significance; the death of a revolutionary soldier saves ten lives, the deaths of ten soldiers-a hundred lives, of a hundred soldiers-a thousand lives. That is the significance of the death of revolutionary soldiers. (Volume 3, Chapter 9 The First Expedition to North Manchuria, 5. The Snowstorm in the Tianqiaoling Mountains)

- If we became a handful of dirt without ffulfilling our duty to history and the times, we would be unfilial sons not only to our families, but also to the nation that gave us birth and brought us up. (Volume 3, Chapter 9 The First Expedition to North Manchuria, 5. The Snowstorm in the Tianqiaoling Mountains)

- It is natural that the luck should be geenerous to men who devote their lives to the people. (Volume 3, Chapter 9 The First Expedition to North Manchuria, 5. The Snowstorm in the Tianqiaoling Mountains)

- A man who enjoys the love of the people is happy, and a man who does not is unhappy. This is the view of the nature of happiness which I have maintained throughout my life. Just as in the past, I still feel nowadays the greatest pride and joy in enjoying the love of the people. I consider this the true meaning of life. Only those who understand this true meaning can be the genuine sons and faithful servants of the people. (Volume 3, Chapter 9 The First Expedition to North Manchuria, 6. In the Bosom of the People)
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With the Century 4
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- Belief in the people at all times, maintenance of revolutionary convictions in all conditions and the unification of broad anti-Japanese forces, with a consistent adherence to the line of independence: these constituted major factors behind the victory of the anti-Japanese revolution. (Volume 4)

- A revolution can be said to be an endlesss journey of people who forge ahead towards victory through success and failure, through advance and retreat, upsurge and setback, which one may repeat or which come in the wake of the other, whatever the turns and twists that can take place in the course of these long endeavors. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 1. A Raging Whirlwind)

- A revolution is an undertaking for surviival, not for death. It is a cause for living a life worthy of human beings; it is a just cause for which one would lay down one's life gladly and honorably, if necessary, on the battlefield in order to remain immortal. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 1. A Raging Whirlwind)

- People's ideologies are not immutable. TThose who had a nationalist ideology in the past can become communists through their firm efforts to make themselves over. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 2. A Polemic at Dahuangwai)

- Fundamentally speaking, nationalism has its ideological basis in the love for one's country and nation. To regard it as reactionary, therefore, is tantamount to regarding patriotism as reactionary. Don't indiscriminately consider nationalism to be heretical. So long as nationalism is not used as an ideological instrument of the bourgeoisie, there is no need to casually reject it. Nationalism can only be reactionary to history when it represents the interests of the bourgeoisie alone, and not the interests of the whole nation. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 2. A Polemic at Dahuangwai)

- A revolution in a country has its own paath and its own timetable. If the forces of one's own country are not prepared, one's revolution will not win of its own accord, no matter how the revolution in a neighboring country may triumph. The communists of all countries must, therefore, struggle to effect revolutions in their own countries through their own efforts, instead of waiting for somebody else to help them. This is precisely the attitude one should maintain towards revolution, an attitude worthy of masters. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 2. A Polemic at Dahuangwai)

- No matter where they're working, the commmunists must fight under the slogan for the revolution in their own country, and through the struggle, they must help the revolution in the country where they are working and also contribute to the world revolution. It is a right to independence as well as a sacred duty for Korean communists to fight for the liberation of their country, a right which nobody can ever prevent from being fulfilled or perform in place of the masters. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 2. A Polemic at Dahuangwai)

- Just as independence is the primary quallity of the man, so it is the primary source of vitality that guarantees the nation's survival. It can be said that independence is the basic factor that affects the lives of individuals as well as a nation, a large community. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 2. A Polemic at Dahuangwai)

- No one will present us with independencee, nor will it come about of its own accord with the lapse of time. We must win it by our own struggle. Only those who fight in an indefatigable, self-sacrificing spirit can win independence and maintain it for ever, because there are too many thieves on this earth who trample upon the sovereignty of other nations. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 2. A Polemic at Dahuangwai)

- Today when the imperialists are clamorinng about the collapse of socialism and are enhancing the political war of nerves in an attempt to sidetrack our Republic from the Juche orbit, it is vital to our nation and our Republic that we continue to champion and uphold independence. The Korean communists will emerge victorious also in their confrontation with the imperialists, in defense of our own style of people-centered socialism and independence. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 2. A Polemic at Dahuangwai)

- The Leftist deviation is a covert counteerrevolution, whereas the Rightist deviation is an overt counterrevolution; the Leftist deviation is a poisonous mushroom as harmful as the Rightist deviation which is a malignant tumor. The Rightists and Leftists seem to be dreaming different dreams while living on the same giant tree of revolution, but, in effect, they are linked with the same vein. Bear in mind that an individual's Leftist mistake would harm a collective, but a government party's Leftist error would lose the people and bring the revolution to ruin. If we forget that, we shall be unable to preserve socialism. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 2. A Polemic at Dahuangwai)

- To oppose and guard against the Leftist tendency, which poses under the mask of super-party words and acts, and to protect the people's political destiny from Leftist encroachment-this is the eternal principle which the communists of government parties must adhere to, without neglecting it even for a moment. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 2. A Polemic at Dahuangwai)

- Young people are the backbone of the maiin force that propels our revolution. The history of any country in the world shows that young people were always in the forefront of the struggle for social transformation. They have the strength to level mountains and to wall off the sea. It is precisely work with the youth that will awaken them to political consciousness, organize and encourage them to stand in the front line of the revolution. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 3. Revolutionaries Born of the Young Communist League)

- Criticism must always be made to save coomrades. Shortcomings must not be connived at, but be criticized in a scientific manner, so that the criticism would be acceptable to the man concerned. Criticism must not be made in a way to expose his mistakes, to abuse or insult him. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 3. Revolutionaries Born of the Young Communist League)

- The guerrilla war was a blast furnace annd a political and military academy that produced fighters. And this blast furnace produced only pure steel. Those who had tilled stony fields or raised cattle and horses in the landlords' stables had become competent fighters after having been tempered in this blast furnace. The anti-Japanese political and military academy made fighters of even those rustic dunces and casual laborers who had thought that wealth and poverty depended on the lines of their palms, or on what the fortune tellers and sorceresses had to say. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 5. The Seeds of the Revolution Sown over a Wide Area)

- Revolution can be likened to a large, loong river, which, breaking against steep rocks and roaring, whirling and eddying through gorges, meanders towards the sea, taking billions of tiny drops of spray with it. Have you ever seen a long river flowing back towards mountains, instead of flowing into the sea? A backward flow or standing still is not for rivers. The river flows forward all the time. It runs ceaselessly to the distant sea, its destination, while overcoming obstacles and embracing its tributaries. The river does not become stale because it moves without stopping or rest. If it stops its flow even for a moment, decay will set in some corner and all sorts of plankton will reproduce in it to build their kingdoms.
If the revolution excludes innovation and regards existing policies as absolute, it will be like a river that has stopped flowing. The revolution must renovate its tactics steadily as required by new circumstances and conditions to attain the strategic goals it has set. Without such renovation, the revolution cannot escape stagnation and standstill. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 5. The Seeds of the Revolution Sown over a Wide Area)

- Creativity and innovation are the sourcees of power that make revolution as dynamic as a long river because they really represent the essential demands of the popular masses who desire indefinite progress and prosperity in order to live a life of independence. In this sense, creativity and innovation can be called an engine propelling the revolution. It will not be exaggerating to say that the speed of the development of a nation depends on the horsepower of this engine. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 5. The Seeds of the Revolution Sown over a Wide Area)

- Once a people rise as a single unity to combat injustice at the risk of their lives, no blockade or scorched-earth operation will succeed against such a people. This is a convincing lesson demonstrated by the history of the international communist movement. (Volume 4, Chapter 10 With the Conviction of Independence, 5. The Seeds of the Revolution Sown over a Wide Area)

- The greatest pleasure for a revolutionarry is to gain comrades and friends, his greatest misery to lose them. (Volume 4, Chapter 11 The Watershed of the Revolution, 2. Strange Relationship)

- Man is the greatest being endowed with iindependence, creativity and consciousness and, at the same time, a beautiful creature who champions justice. Man, by nature, aspires to virtue and ennobling qualities and detests all that is evil and dirty. These unique features constitute his human traits. (Volume 4, Chapter 11 The Watershed of the Revolution, 2. Strange Relationship)

- One cannot experience the true love betwween comrades, until one has undergone a revolution in the true sense of the word, and one cannot understand such love, until one has shared one's life with comrades in the shadow of death under a hail of fire on the battlefield. (Volume 4, Chapter 11 The Watershed of the Revolution, 4. My Comrades-in-Arms to the North; I to the South)

- It is an immutable law of nature that ann apple tree bears only apples and a pear tree only pears. There is no difference between this law and the law of society. Accordingly a new generation, born with the soul of Mt. Baekdu, grows up on the land of Mt. Baekdu. (Volume 4, Chapter 11 The Watershed of the Revolution, 5. Choe Hyon, a Veteran General)

- We can say that for a revolutionary colllective united ideologically and morally on the basis of a common ideal, rather than pursuit of money or profit, confidence in one another is the lifeblood, which guarantees its unity and solid development. Thanks to mutual trust, communist morality runs high in the collective: comrades love one another, superiors take loving care of their subordinates, and subordinates respect their superiors.
For Korean revolutionaries, confidence is the starting-point of the communist relationship which links the past, present and future. (Volume 4, Chapter 12 To Hasten the Liberation of the Country, 1. The Birth of a New Division)

- Capitalists cannot live without money, wwhereas communists cannot live without trust. In our country trust is an integral part of social relations and the mode of existence of collectivism. Everybody who believes that his organization and comrades trust him can display unfathomable energy in the struggle for the Party and country. (Volume 4, Chapter 12 To Hasten the Liberation of the Country, 1. The Birth of a New Division)

- In communist human relations, the son off my comrade-in-arms is my son and vice versa. When I am ill, my comrade also feels my pain and vice versa, and when I am hungry my comrade also feels my hunger and vice versa--this communist ethics and morality transforms the communist into the most beautiful human being in the world. (Volume 4, Chapter 12 To Hasten the Liberation of the Country, 2. 20 Yuan)

- Communists make the ultimate self-sacriffices, which are inconceivable to narrow-minded or selfish people, but they themselves regard it as nothing unusual, blush and feel shy at compliments. This is the personal charm of communists and a particular virtue of Koreans. (Volume 4, Chapter 12 To Hasten the Liberation of the Country, 2. 20 Yuan)

- It gives me particular pleasure or happiiness to be among the people, discover amongst them excellent people who can set an example for the whole country and debate state affairs, their living and our future. (Volume 4, Chapter 12 To Hasten the Liberation of the Country, 2. 20 Yuan)
- The children are the flowers of the workking class, the nation and mankind. It is the noble duty of us communists to cultivate these flowers with due care. The future of the revolution depends on our education of children. The revolution is not carried out by one generation: it is consummated through many generations. (Volume 4, Chapter 12 To Hasten the Liberation of the Country, 2. 20 Yuan)

- If you despise children, you despise youurselves. If we neglect them or shy away from their difficulties for the sake of our own self-protection, posterity will not remember us in the remote future. Our efforts for the children will affect their attitude towards us after many decades as well as the looks of the country they planned to build. The more warmly we love them, the more prosperous, civilized and beautiful the homeland will become in future. (Volume 4, Chapter 12 To Hasten the Liberation of the Country, 2. 20 Yuan)

- Love for the younger generation is the mmost devoted and dynamic kind of human love; it is the purest and most beautiful of all paeans dedicated to humanity. Communists create such paeans and serve and fight for them. (Volume 4, Chapter 12 To Hasten the Liberation of the Country, 2. 20 Yuan)

- Reviewing my 80 years of hardships, I woould like to tell young people that if you are captivated by money and wealth, you become a dirty man, who is disloyal to the leader and the Party, the fatherland and fellow people and, worse still, thinks nothing of his parents, wife and children. (Volume 4, Chapter 12 To Hasten the Liberation of the Country, 2. 20 Yuan)

- A "loss" incurred by the state for the ggood of the people is not a loss. The more money it spends on the people's welfare, the greater happiness our Party feels; and the greater the "loss" it incurs for the children's sake, the more our state is satisfied. (Volume 4, Chapter 12 To Hasten the Liberation of the Country, 2. 20 Yuan)

- Communists must always be fair to other people. This means that they should appreciate good people as such and their merits as virtues, regardless of their party affiliation, religion or social strata. Communists must always maintain a scientific attitude in appreciating people. This means that they must judge a man correctly from an objective point of view, mainly by his ideas and practice, rather than a ready-made formula. If they regard a man's origin as absolute in judging him, they cannot make a scientific and fair judgment of him. [Volume 4, Chapter 12 To Hasten the Liberation of the Country, 3. Revolutionary Comrade-in-Arms Zhang Wei-Hua (1)]

- Ever since childhood, I had avoided judgging people by the standard of their property, going instead by their love for fellow human beings, fellow countrymen and their motherland. I even regarded rich people in a favourable light, if they loved their fellow people and country. I even disregarded poor people, if they lacked human love or love for their country. In a nutshell, I evaluated people mainly by the criterion of ideology. [Volume 4, Chapter 12 To Hasten the Liberation of the Country, 3. Revolutionary Comrade-in-Arms Zhang Wei-Hua (1)]

- Just as love and science have no nationaal boundaries, revolution knows no boundaries. [Volume 4, Chapter 12 To Hasten the Liberation of the Country, 3. Revolutionary Comrade-in-Arms Zhang Wei-Hua (1)]

- A living man must not forget the dead. OOnly then can their friendship be lasting, true and immortal. If the former forgets the latter, such friendship will die out there and then. Frequent remembrance of dead friends, wide publicity of their distinguished services, good care of their children and loyalty to their last wishes: these are the moral obligations of living men to their predecessors, martyrs and deceased revolutionary comrades. Without this loyalty, there would be no true continuation of history and traditions. [Volume 4, Chapter 12 To Hasten the Liberation of the Country, 3. Revolutionary Comrade-in-Arms Zhang Wei-Hua (2)]

- Only an infinitely conscientious man is infinitely honest. Honesty is the mirror of our conscience, which is as pure as white snow; it resembles a beacon which cannot be concealed. (Volume 4, Chapter 12 To Hasten the Liberation of the Country, 5. The Association for the Restoration of the Fatherland)

- Almost all the so-called communists asseerted emphatically that communists would only free the working class and all mankind from exploitation and oppression, when they had got rid of a narrow national ideal and strictly adhered to the class principle and the internationalist stance, as if communism ran counter to the national ideal.
   Many proponents of communism insisted on this fact, because they accepted very simply the proposition "The proletariat has no fatherland", made by Marx in The Communist Manifesto.
   Marx and Engels lived in a historic period, when the possibility of a socialist revolution in one country had not fully matured. They predicted that a socialist revolution would occur simultaneously in a number of countries, where capitalism was highly developed.
   In conditions where the bourgeoisie of every country, who were to be overthrown by the working class, posed as defenders of national interests, the revolutionary cause of the proletariat throughout the world might have been spoiled, if the proletariat of all countries had been deceived by the honeyed words of "nationalism" or "patriotism" advocated by the bourgeois class of their own country. For the proletariat of every country, their homeland under bourgeois rule can never be their fatherland; therefore, the proletariat had to back unfailingly internationalism and socialism in the choice between chauvinism and internationalism and nationalism and socialism.
   Proceeding from this point of view, the classics of Marxism warned the working class against so-called patriotic illusions and instructed them to discard at all times the nationalist bias between patriotism and socialism and defend socialism. Analyzing the causes behind the failure of the Paris Commune, Marx asserted that the participants of the Commune had not attacked Versailles, the den of reactionaries, as they thought mistakenly that the launch of a civil war would constitute an anti-patriotic act, when the foreign enemy, the Prussian army, was encircling Paris.
   Lenin branded it a treachery to the socialist cause that, following the outbreak of the World War I, the revisionists of the Second International abandoned the revolutionary principle of the working class and sided with the bourgeoisie of their own country, under the slogan of "defense of the fatherland".
   To help, under the pretext of "defense of the fatherland", the bourgeoisie obtain colonies, who madly display a readiness to increase their own wealth at the cost of their whole nation, constitutes a betrayal of one's own nation and, at the same time, of socialism. Therefore, if the proletariat of an imperialist country are loyal to the socialist cause, they should not hold up the sign of "defense of the fatherland" but instead should hoist the banner of "opposing war" and launch a campaign to boycott war. However, the situation is completely different in colonial and dependent countries. For the communists of these countries, raising the banner of national liberation and patriotism is tantamount to opposing the bourgeoisie in the suzerain states; by doing so, they make an, equal contribution to the national and class revolution, as well as to the international revolutionary cause.
Pseudo-communists and would-be Marxists made a theoretical and practical mistake: failing to understand this plain truth, they regarded patriotism and nationalism as the enemy of communism and rejected them unconditionally, absolutizing the proposition "The proletariat has no fatherland".
   In the new historical situation in which the socialist revolution takes place with the nation-state as a unit, there can be said to be no major difference between genuine nationalism and genuine communism in colonies. The former lays a little more stress on the national character, the latter on the class character. Their patriotic stands should be regarded as the same in that they both champion the nation's interests against foreign forces.
   My invariable belief is that a true communist is a true patriot and that a true nationalist, too, is a true patriot.
   Therefore, we consistently attached great importance to cooperation with true, patriotic nationalists and devoted all our efforts to strengthening our alliance with them. (Volume 4, Chapter 12 To Hasten the Liberation of the Country, 5. The Association for the Restoration of the Fatherland)